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## Explain the merits and demerits of various file organisations.

Sequential access file organization In computer science, sequential access means that a group of elements (such as data in a memory array or a disk file or on magnetic tape data storage) is accessed in a predetermined, ordered sequence. Sequential access is sometimes the only way of accessing the data, for example if it is on a tape. Direct File Organization  Hash/Direct File Organization. In…

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## What are red-black trees ? Explain the properties of a red-black tree.

A red-black tree is a binary search tree which has the following red-black properties: Every node is either red or black. Every leaf (NULL) is black. If a node is red, then both its children are black. Every simple path from a node to a descendant leaf contains the same number of black nodes. Download Solutions Ignou MCA Solved Question Paper

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## Explain Kruskal’s algorithm with an example.

Kruskal’s algorithm is an algorithm in graph theory that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted graph. This means it finds a subset of the edges that forms a tree that includes every vertex, where the total weight of all the edges in the tree is minimized. If the graph is not connected,…

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## Write a non-recursive algorithm for in-order traversal of a binary tree.

We extend the concept of linked data structures to structure containing nodes with more than one self-referenced field. A binary tree is made of nodes, where each node contains a “left” reference, a “right” reference, and a data element. The topmost node in the tree is called the root. Download Solutions Ignou MCA Solved Question Paper

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## Write an algorithm for the implementation of a doubly linked list.

In computer science, a doubly linked list is a linked data structure that consists of a set of sequentially linked records called nodes. Each node contains two fields, called links, that are references to the previous and to the next node in the sequence of nodes. Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubly_linked_list Download Solutions Ignou MCA Solved Question Paper

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## What is splay Tree? How does it differ from a Tree ?

A splay tree is a self-adjusting binary search tree with the additional property that recently accessed elements are quick to access again. It performs basic operations such as insertion, look-up and removal in O(log n) amortized time. Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Splay_tree Download Notes Ignou MCA Solved Question Paper

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## Write an algorithm for Breadth first search

Breadth-first search (BFS) is an algorithm for traversing or searching tree or graph data structures. It starts at the tree root (or some arbitrary node of a graph, sometimes referred to as a ‘search key’) and explores the neighbor nodes first, before moving to the next level neighbors. Read more : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breadth-first_search MCS021 Decemeber 2015 Solved Question Paper Ignou MCA Solved Question Paper